Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Democratization and Government Book Series

Middle East Government

Anti-corruption legislation may also be abused to target critics and whistleblowers. Some key activities include, improving regulations on sustainable hunting and fishing and equipping environmental police and increasing the capacity of police, women groups, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to enforce these laws. Enhancing the traditional knowledge of Marsh Arab women is also critical, through capacity-building trainings to increase their economic opportunities, whilst improving climate change adaptation of the Marshlands.

The president further consolidated power, dismissing the prime minister and freezing the parliament. Of note, just 11.2 per turned out in the parliamentary elections which were held in December. The new parliament will be extremely weak and unable to tackle critical issues to support democracy and anti-corruption efforts.

Middle East

Thus, the Romans stationed up to five or six of their legions in the region for the sole purpose of defending it from Sassanid and Bedouin raids and invasions. By considering the crosscutting effects of climate change adaptation, biodiversity and ecosystems protection and climate-resilient livelihoods development, these organizations hope to make a positive impact in preserving and protecting one of Iraq’s greatest national treasures. In addition to this, practices that harm wildlife biodiversity have also had a catastrophic impact on the fragile ecosystem of these wetlands, upon which the indigenous population, migratory water birds and native fish species largely depend,” continues Mr. Lootsma.

  • Secularism is not the same as freedom of religion, and secular governments have at times denied the rights of Islamists and other religious parties.
  • In her chapter on Iraq, Professor of International Affairs at George Washington University Judith S. Yaphe foreshadows the continuing internal sectarian and ethnic problems under Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki.
  • Algeria remains one of the lesser researched countries in the MENA and Arab world, due to its past conflicts and perceived inaccessibility to many social scientists.
  • The instability and consolidation of power in turn fuels political corruption, feeding the vicious cycle of authoritarianism, corruption and conflict across the Arab world.
  • Even though certain high-profile positions in the government and the seats in the parliament are reserved for specified sects, intense competition is usually expected of political parties and candidates.

Case studies of Egypt, Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia reveal that different Muslim-majority populations have settled upon divergent frameworks of expressing and protecting their creeds and institutions; such diversity is integral to understanding the texture of social life. MEI’s Syria Program seeks to provide insightful and grounded research and analysis on all things Syria in order to better inform a wide range of audiences and to help sustain and shape a more meaningful policy-oriented discussion. Drawing on the expertise of over a dozen renowned scholars, the Syria Program covers all aspects of Syria and its ongoing crises – from political, economic, legal, social, ethnic and religious dynamics, to conflict, insurgency and terrorism and the country’s history and possible futures. Historically Iranians were ruled by an absolute monarchy for several thousand years, at least since the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550 B.C.E.) until the Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century. The Constitutional Revolution in 1906 replaced the absolute monarchy with a constitutional monarchy.

A powerful ESG agenda

Arabic, with all its dialects, is the most widely spoken language in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Several Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri and Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans. There is also an Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa.

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What is sheikh title?

Sheikh (/ʃeɪk, ʃiːk/ SHAYK, SHEEK; Arabic: شَيْخْ šāyḫ [ʃajχ], commonly [ʃeːχ], plural شَيُوخْ šuyūḫ [ʃujuːχ]) is an honorific title in the Arabic language, literally meaning 'elder’; in a monarchical context it is also translated as 'lord/master'.

What is the Arab political organization?

The League of Arab States (LAS) is an intergovernmental pan-Arab organisation of all Arab states in the Middle East and North Africa, established in Cairo on March 22, 1945, following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944.

Is Israel in Asia Or Africa?

Israel stands at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa. Geographically, it belongs to the Asian continent and is part of the Middle East region. In the west, Israel is bound by the Mediterranean Sea.